Aluminum laser welding - The process
As with all welding processes, the joining zones of the two components to be joined are locally melted by a targeted heat input, in this case by a diode laser. The melts of the two components flow into each other, cool down and form a solid joint after solidification. Since the individual alloy components of the aluminum solidify at different temperatures, there is a risk of hot cracks due to the shrinkage stresses occurring in the microstructure during cooling. These would significantly reduce the strength of the welded joint. To avoid hot cracks, a filler wire of aluminum silicon (AlSi) is therefore added to optimize aluminum weldability. The weld produced in this way not only has excellent strength, but is also visually appealing and requires no post-processing.
Process advantages of the diode laser in aluminum welding
A major advantage of the process is the quiet melt pool during laser welding of aluminum. The weld seams therefore turn out very uniformly shaped, clean and smooth. Contamination due to unwanted metal splashes on the surface of the workpiece and on the laser optics can be avoided.
Another advantage is the significantly higher energy efficiency of the diode laser compared to other industrial lasers, which makes it attractive for laser welding aluminum in terms of both process technology and economy. Developments in recent years show that energy efficiency and sustainability are becoming a major factor in production in almost all industries. The development of future-oriented technology that produces optimum results with consistently high performance is therefore trend-setting for Laserline.
Last but not least, the Laserline Multi-Spot module can be used to implement almost any spot geometry to suit any specific process requirement, be it splitting the beam into several individual spots, adjusting the spot spacing or distributing the intensity within a spot. With the spot-in-spot configuration, for example, symmetrical and asymmetrical seams can be achieved with a considerably better weld quality than with conventional circular or rectangular spots, and this at high speeds. The triple-spot technique is used, among other things, for welding aluminum with filler wire. Two secondary spots upstream of the main spot remove the coating at the edge of the wire melting area. During the directly subsequent melting process, this contributes to a considerably smoother, controlled welding process.